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A “loan” is a financial transaction in which one party, typically a lender or a financial services provider, provides a sum of money to another party, known as the borrower. The understanding that the borrower will repay the financial institution the borrowed amount, with interest, over a specified period of time.

Loans serve as a common method for individuals, businesses, and governments to access funds for various purposes, such as making purchases, financing projects, or covering unexpected expenses.

Key terminology of a loan

Principal Amount

This is the initial sum of money borrowed by the borrower. It is the amount that needs to be repaid.


The lender typically charges interest on the principal amount as compensation for lending the money. Interest is expressed as a percentage of the principal and is added to the amount to be repaid.


The loan term refers to the duration over which the borrower is expected to repay the loan. It can vary from short-term loans (e.g., a few months) to long-term loans (e.g., several years).

Repayment Schedule

Loans are usually repaid in installments, which can be monthly, quarterly, or according to another agreed-upon schedule. Each installment includes a portion of the principal and the interest.


Some loans are secured, meaning they require the borrower to provide collateral, such as a car or a house, which the lender can take possession of in the event of non-payment. Unsecured loans, on the other hand, do not require collateral but may have higher interest rates.


Lenders, like banks or other financial institutions, assess the creditworthiness of borrowers to determine the interest rate and terms of the loan. This assessment considers factors such as the borrower’s credit history, income, and ability to repay.

There are various types of loans with different purposes:

  1. Personal Loans
    A personal loan is an unsecured loan offered by financial institutions to individuals for various personal needs. It doesn’t require collateral and comes with a fixed interest rate, fixed term, and monthly payments.
  2. Payday Loans
    A payday loan is a short-term, high-interest loan typically designed to help individuals bridge financial gaps between paychecks. These loans are often small in amount and are intended to be repaid in full, along with the associated fees and interest, when the borrower receives their next paycheck.
  3. Bank Specific Loans
    Bank-specific loans refer to various types of loans that are offered by specific banks or financial institutions, each with its own terms, conditions, and features. These loans are tailored to meet the specific needs and preferences of both individual and business borrowers.
  4. Home Loans
    A home loan, also commonly known as a mortgage, is a type of financial arrangement provided by banks and financial institutions to help individuals and families purchase residential properties. Home loans are a crucial part of the home-buying process, as they enable individuals to spread the cost of a home purchase over an extended period, often several decades.
  5. Loan Calculators
    Loan calculators are valuable online tools that help individuals, businesses, and borrowers calculate various aspects of loans quickly and accurately. These calculators can provide essential financial insights, such as monthly payments, total interest costs, and loan amortization schedules.
  6. Business Loans
    Business loans are financial products designed to provide capital to businesses for various purposes, including startup costs, expansion, working capital, equipment purchase, and more. These loans are offered by banks, credit unions, online lenders, and other financial institutions to help businesses meet their financial needs.
  7. Debt Consolidation Loans
    Debt consolidation loans are financial products designed to help individuals and businesses simplify their debt management by combining multiple debts into a single loan with more favorable terms. The primary goal of debt consolidation is to streamline repayments, reduce the total interest paid, and make debt repayment more manageable.

Conclusion to a Loan Application Online

The home loan application process involves evaluating your finances, checking your credit score, setting a budget, researching lenders and loan types, getting preapproved, finding a home with an agent, submitting a loan application, undergoing underwriting and processing.

The loan application varies from financial institution to the other, but in the end the loan and purpose stay the same.

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